CompTIA – Interface Technical Training https://www.interfacett.com Wed, 21 Jun 2017 19:26:18 +0000 en-US hourly 1 How to extract your outside IP address-without a chicken or a monkey https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/how-to-extract-your-outside-ip-address-without-a-chicken-or-a-monkey/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/how-to-extract-your-outside-ip-address-without-a-chicken-or-a-monkey/#respond Mon, 15 May 2017 17:47:15 +0000 https://www.interfacett.com/?post_type=infct_blogpost&p=11374 Frequently I find myself asking students in my Network+ or Cisco CCNA classes to divulge their favorite resource to use when they want to determine their external (publicly accessible) IP address. Here are some of the more popular answers: whatismyip.com Or ipchicken.com. Or perhaps even better, the ipmonkey.com: I did not include the actual IP … Continue reading How to extract your outside IP address-without a chicken or a monkey

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Frequently I find myself asking students in my Network+ or Cisco CCNA classes to divulge their favorite resource to use when they want to determine their external (publicly accessible) IP address.

Here are some of the more popular answers: whatismyip.com

Or ipchicken.com.

Or perhaps even better, the ipmonkey.com:

I did not include the actual IP address that I obtained when I was writing this blog, not because it is some big secret, but because I suggest to readers to run the same tests themselves and compare output.  “Compare to what?” you ask.  Well what if I want to know my external IP address, but I want the results from a command prompt?  There is a way, so let’s see it in action.

This method uses the command prompt, but there is a way to do this in PowerShell as well.  I am not the originator of these methods, but I find them useful enough that I want to throw my voice into the mix and announce them to others who may find them useful also.

The command uses nslookup in non-interactive mode and looks like this:

nslookup myip.opendns.com resolver1.opendns.com

 See figure 4 to see the results:

 

 Hey!  That is the same address I found using the aforementioned web resources, but I did not have to launch a browser to get it!  Now you  can use that information as input in other scripted activities!

I did mention that it can also be done in PowerShell, so I will include that here, although I am not a guru on that topic (always willing to learn more…).

The command and output is

(Invoke-WebRequest -URI (“ifconfig.me/ip”)).Content

and is shown in figure 5:

 

Be aware that it could take up to a minute before the above command generates output, but it does work.  Hope you find this to be a useful tidbit!

Until next time….

Mark Jacob
Cisco and CompTIA Network + Instructor – Interface Technical Training
Phoenix, AZ

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How to get more comfortable with IPv6 https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/how-to-get-more-comfortable-with-ipv6/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/how-to-get-more-comfortable-with-ipv6/#respond Mon, 12 Dec 2016 21:30:46 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=23742 If you are new to the world of networking, perhaps considering putting in the effort to achieve Network + certification, you may wish you were more comfortable with IPv6. If you are already an IPv6 guru, this may be child’s play for you. Yet it turns out that if you are already comfortable with IPv4, … Continue reading How to get more comfortable with IPv6

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If you are new to the world of networking, perhaps considering putting in the effort to achieve Network + certification, you may wish you were more comfortable with IPv6. If you are already an IPv6 guru, this may be child’s play for you. Yet it turns out that if you are already comfortable with IPv4, you are not far away from treating IPv6 like an old friend.  I like to make comparisons between IPv4 and IPv6 to make the connections easier.  Most of the reluctance to ‘liking’ IPv6 seems to be due to unfamiliarity. Let’s dispel some of that unfamiliarity right now.

Let’s take something we already know and use it as leverage to learn more.  Consider a Class B network in IPv4. For example, 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0. Using CIDR notation, this can also be written as 172.16.0.0 /16, pronounced ‘slash sixteen.’  We know that in IPv4, this means that the first sixteen bits ‘belong’ to the network, or identify network bits.  The easy way to keep this straight is to imagine that these bits are now chiseled in granite, or that they cannot move.  Figure 1 shows how this looks in binary:

001-how-to-get-more-comfortable-with-ipv6

The red bits in Figure 1 are the ones that can’t move.  The black bits are free to move about. This may seem elementary, but the concept applies in IPv6 as well.  The official dirt on IPv6 is contained in RFC 4291. I want to take one small snippet from that RFC and build on it here, using the above information as a base.  Figure 2 shows section 2.4 of RFC 4291:

002-how-to-get-more-comfortable-with-ipv6

You may know that IPv6 has 128 bits, as opposed to the 32 bits in IPv4. IPv4 is usually written using dotted-decimal notation, for human consumption.  IPv6 is written in hexadecimal, which may make it seem un-human-friendly. It turns out, that is far from the truth.  Consider writing IPv6 in dotted-decimal like IPv4, what would that look like?  Let’s say we break a full IPv6 address into octets (chunks of 8 bits). Instead of four octets as in IPv4, it would take 16 octets to write an uncompressed IPv6 address. No wonder they don’t do it that way. Now back to the main topic, what does the slash notation mean in IPv6?

Figure 2 shows the link-local IPv6 address, which ends with /10.  No need to scrap any prior knowledge here – /10 means what we think it means – that the first ten bits ‘belong’ to, or identify, the network. Figure 3 shows an IPv6 chart similar to the IPv4 chart shown in Figure 2.

003-how-to-get-more-comfortable-with-ipv6

Once again, the red bits indicate bits that will not move.  The black zeroes are free to change.  This means that, much like a route summarization in IPv4, the notation FE80::/10 indicates a block of network information.  We can expand on the table in Figure 3 to see how far this block extends in the third hexadecimal quartet.  This is shown in Figure 4:

004-how-to-get-more-comfortable-with-ipv6

Like before, the red bits don’t move.  But keep an eye on the third hexadecimal quartet and the green bits.  You can see how they roll through all their possible combinations from zero to three.  However, behind the scenes, even though I am writing a (portion of) 128 bit address in binary, it is normally written in hex.  So let’s interpret that third section in hex:

 

Binary             Hexadecimal

1000                            8

1001                            9

1010                            A

1011                            B

 

This means valid link-local addresses can be represented as FE80, FE90, FEA0, and FEB0.  That being said, I have not encountered in the wild any link-local address representation other than the typical FE80 variety.  Maybe that’s because there are so many valid link local addresses that begin with FE80, there is no need to use the rest.  Maybe someday in a galaxy far far away.

If you have any thoughts on your experiences with IPv6, I would love to hear them…

This is an example of what you will learn in the CompTIA Network + Certification class at Interface Technical Training.

For instructor-led CompTIA Certification classes, see our course schedule.

Until next time.

Mark Jacob
Cisco and CompTIA Network + Instructor – Interface Technical Training
Phoenix, AZ

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CompTIA Security+ What Motivates People to Take Your Intellectual Property? https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-security-what-motivates-people-to-take-your-intellectual-property/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-security-what-motivates-people-to-take-your-intellectual-property/#respond Tue, 29 Nov 2016 16:31:48 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=23711 CompTIA Instructor Steve Fullmer describes the importance of getting Security+ Certified. Security is no longer about the “haves” and the “have nots” a small group of people who are trying to take advantage of your possessions and intellectual property (IP). In the book ‘Tribal Leadership’ by Dave Logan, John King, Halee Fischer-Wright, they discuss the stages of … Continue reading CompTIA Security+ What Motivates People to Take Your Intellectual Property?

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CompTIA Instructor Steve Fullmer describes the importance of getting Security+ Certified.

Security is no longer about the “haves” and the “have nots” a small group of people who are trying to take advantage of your possessions and intellectual property (IP).

001-comptia-security-triable-leadership

In the book ‘Tribal Leadership’ by Dave Logan, John King, Halee Fischer-Wright, they discuss the stages of a tribal culture and the global concept behind this is that 2% of the population the population of the tribe or the planet by extension of all tribes in aggregate live in this undermining mindset of “All Life Sucks” they are disbanding people banding together to go towards a violent end. These are the people who vandalize your content – intellectual property.

We have 25% of the tribe who operate in a mindset of being apathetic victims. They’re looking for more. When you think about the technology that you utilize every day such as your telephone and texts, a large percentage of the world doesn’t have this technology and want it. The way they can acquire this technology is to take it away from you.

What does this represent in terms of numbers?

002-comptia-security-triable-leadership

We have a global population of over 7 billion people. 2% represents a 148 million people who want to vandalize content to make their lives to what they perceive as “better” or “best as they can get it”.

We have almost 2 billion people that are the “apathetic victim”.

You need to have not only the knowledge of what they’re approach is to try to take you intellectual property or assets away, what you need to do is have a layered approach. You need to have determents in place that hold these people away and you need to prevent them from getting into the inter layers and you need to be able to detect, prevent and lock down your important assets.

It’s not just good enough to understand these possible threats. In our CompTIA Security + Certification class you need to learn more than just the vocabulary to pass the certification, you need to learn more.

003-comptia-security-triable-leadership

Security amongst the fifteen top paying IT jobs ranks six of them. From Certified Information Security Manager (CISM), Certified Information Systems Professional (CISSP), Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA), Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) etc. CompTIA Security + Certification is just below these fifteen professional certifications as the entry level certification you need to get started in the IT Security Industry.

In CompTIA Security + you understand the basic tools set and vocabulary you need to be able to prepare yourself to defend your intellectual property, employees and systems.

004-comptia-security-triable-leadership

Security + is considered an Intermediate CompTIA certification. You will need basic CompTIA A+ skills as it’s the prerequisite to take the Security+ class.

Here it is determined to be an intermediate skill-set.

054-comptia-security-triable-leadership

There are additional more advanced Certification such as CISSP, CEH etc. that are on the track as you move forward but you will need to obtain the certificate of Security+’s basic skills before you can move on.

It’s not good enough for example if you’re protecting you house to just put a sign up that says “Beware of Dog” as a security monitoring system that will stop an intruder. There are too large a number of people who are just casually trying to make their lives better by taking advantage of what you have or what you know. This is what CompTIA Security+ is about.

I look forward to seeing you in the classroom, or online!

Steven Fullmer
Interface Technical Training Staff Instructor

Steve teaches PMP: Project Management Fundamentals and Professional Certification, Windows 10, and CompTIA classes in Phoenix, Arizona.

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CompTIA Series: A Technology Timeline https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-series-a-technology-timeline/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-series-a-technology-timeline/#respond Tue, 18 Oct 2016 16:40:19 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=23612 After receiving yet another reference to the DoYouRemember? web site, and a question about my ability to identify a Commodore 64 workstation sitting in a co-worker’s office, I have decided to defend my age.  (Please stop baiting my memory … one day I actually will start forgetting details … and blaming the problem on random … Continue reading CompTIA Series: A Technology Timeline

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After receiving yet another reference to the DoYouRemember? web site, and a question about my ability to identify a Commodore 64 workstation sitting in a co-worker’s office, I have decided to defend my age.  (Please stop baiting my memory … one day I actually will start forgetting details … and blaming the problem on random people that I do recall.)

01-commodore-64-comptia-series-a-technology-time-line

The technology timeline has become a common issue in the CompTIA A+ and Security+ courses that I deliver.  Although CompTIA objectives do not include any ‘history’ requirements, candidates are expected to recognize the evolutionary sequence of operating systems.  I have actually had students suggest that Windows XP was introduced in 1981 along with the first personal computer.  Ouch!  I also regularly provide a brief history of Internet evolution and encryption systems as a means to describe the growing complexity we face as information technology professionals.

If you plan on a successful career within the IT industry, it might help to recognize some history.   Context might also help you to understand the technology rather than merely memorizing test answers.

In that light, here are some dates and references that might serve you well, along with several totally random dates and factoids associated with the evolution of computer technology merely for your reading pleasure.

~80 BC Julius Caesar’s use of substitution ciphers is one of the first recorded uses of symmetric cryptography (although it is known that other ciphers preceded this time period, this is the first documented use.)

February 23, 1918 Arthur Scherbius patents a mechanical cipher machine based on rotating wired wheels.  This becomes the basis for the German ‘enigma’ machine.

December 1932 The Polish Cipher bureau reverse engineers the Enigma machine using theoretical mathematics and components provided by French intelligence.  Marian Rejewski creates the ‘cryptologic bomb’ for breaking ciphers.

1936 Alan Turing invents the Turing machine, the general principle behind a Central Processing Unit – an automaton capable of enumerating a language or code.

June 5, 1943 Secret “Project PX” initiated in US to create first ‘Turing complete digital’ computer which ultimately resulted in ENIAC.

August 6 and August 9, 1945 nuclear weapons dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.  Awareness that an electromagnetic pulse would restrict prevalent military communication methods inspires research that leads toward development of ARPANET.

February 15, 1946 Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) dedicated at University of Pennsylvania (for US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory).

July 29. 1947 ENIAC moved to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.  ENIAC remained in continuous operation, with component additions ongoing, through October 2, 1955.

1951  The Day the Earth Stood Still released by 20th Century Fox.  Gort, Klaatu barada nikto.

October 4, 1957 Russia launches Sputnik.

February 1958 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) created by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to insure US military technology would be more advanced than the nation’s potential enemies.

The following graph provides an ARPANET timeline.

02-arpnet-comptia-series-a-technology-time-line

April 19, 1965 Gordon E. Moore predicted that the number of components per integrated circuit would double approximately every two years.  Referred to as ‘Moore’s law’, this prediction has held true for almost 50 years.  Current (2016) studies in physics identify that Moore’s law, which is more of an observation anyway, is breaking down due to the laws of physics associated with silicon technology.

September 8, 1966 The first episode of Star Trek: The Original Series airs.

July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 lands on the moon.

October 29, 1969 First ARPANET transmission from UCLA to Stanford (4 hosts total)

1973 Clifford Cocks develops the first asymmetric cryptography system while working for the UK intelligence agency GCHQ  (does “Q” sound familiar to anyone?) , although it was not declassified until 1997.

1973 TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol) developed by Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn working for DARPA at Stanford.

1975 The MITS Altair 8800 is introduced as the first personal computer, available as a kit, using the Intel 8080 CPU.

1975 Xerox files Ethernet patent based upon work inspired by Robert Metcalfe and his 1973 ALOHAnet PhD dissertation.

1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak introduce the Apple I personal computer kit.

May 1977 Star Wars theatrical release.

1977 Rivest, Shamir, and Adlemanpublicly reveal asymmetric (public-private key) cryptography.

1980  Carl Sagan hosts Cosmos: A Personal Voyage on PBS, fostering science based television programming.

1980 Commodore VIC-20 available for $299 creates the home computing market.

1981 The National Science Foundation (NSF) funds the Computer Science Network (CSNET) to link to ARPANET and create a network of networks (the foundation of the Internet).  The combined network eventually called NSFNET.

April 12, 1981 Space shuttle STS-1 Columbia launch.

August 12, 1981 – IBM introduces the IBM PC based on the Intel 8080, a 16 bit CPU on an 8 bit bus with five expansion slots, 16 KB of RAM, and two 5.25” drive bays.

1982 Term Internet used for the first time.

1984 Apple Lisa introduced the first graphical user interface and computer mouse.

1985 Microsoft ships Windows 1.0

1986 NSFNET establishes supercomputing centers by connecting several universities (the Internet infrastructure is finally just being built.)  This leads to the decommissioning of ARPANET in 1990.

1986 First 80386 processor shipped in a Compaq PC – 16 MHz speed.

1987 Apple Mac II with 128 MB RAM; IBM introduces PS/2; IBM & Microsoft release OS/2 and Windows 1.01.

1988 First Internet worm infects 6,000 Unix computers.

1990 Macintosh IIfx introduces 40 MHz processor and first accelerated video card trumping Windows 3.0 on 80486 33 MHz computers.

1990 Tim- Berners Lee and CERN create hypertext.

1992 Microsoft ships Windows 3.1, now capable of supporting faster hardware platforms.

1992 World Wide Web definition released by CERN

1993 Intel introduces the 60 MHz Pentium (released with a math bug that required a later recall), and Apple discontinues the Apple II line.

1993 Marc Anderson creates Mosaic- first web browser; estimates suggest ~2,000,000 computers connected to Internet.

1993 Banking industry establishes first commercial use of Internet for business-to-business use.

1996 Internet celebrates official 25th anniversary;  40,000,000 people connected via12,000,000 hosts

1997 56K modems and cable modems become commercially available.

1997 dot-com bubble begins (lasting to a peak on March 10, 2000)

1998  Windows 98 ships.  The Apple iMac introduces the USB port, eventual successor to parallel and serial ports.

1999 Intel Pentium III and AMD Athlon introduced, escalating the MHz war between the two manufacturers.

2000 Athlon first to reach 1 GHz processor speed.

2000 Internet status: 185 countries, 70K computer networks, 300,000,000 people worldwide

2001-2002  dot-com bubble collapses.    Only a few companies, most notably eBay and Amazon, recovered to exceed dot-com peaks.

2001 Intel reaches 2 GHz with the Pentium 4, and introduces the Itanium as the first 64-bit CPU.

2001 Windows XP launch.

2002 Verizon launches first 3G cellular network.

2004  Facebook launch.

2007  Twitter launch.  Windows Vista launch.   iPhone introduces mobile web.

2009 Windows 7 launch.

2009 Avatar cinematic release.  2nd highest grossing film of all time.

2012  Windows 8 launch.  Replaced by Windows 8.1 in October 2013.

2015  Windows 10 launch.

03-arpnet-comptia-series-a-technology-time-line

For a media and Internet business perspective, I borrowed a marketing perspective from Malone Media Group that yields a great visual of major Internet product offerings.

My short review should get you up to speed.  Maybe you can create the next major entry?

I look forward to seeing you in the classroom, or online!

Steven Fullmer
Interface Technical Training Staff Instructor

Steve teaches PMP: Project Management Fundamentals and Professional Certification, Windows 10, and CompTIA classes in Phoenix, Arizona.

 

 

 

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CompTIA Security+ An Approach Toward Physical Security https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-security-an-approach-toward-physical-security/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-security-an-approach-toward-physical-security/#respond Mon, 29 Aug 2016 20:29:58 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=23279 For many IT professionals, Security+ is their first exposure to planning facility security.   Comprehensive, layered security is always the best solution. With unlimited resources you can place cameras everywhere, key or card access systems at every door, signage throughout a facility, frequent training and user education, security guards, secured guest and public meeting areas, or … Continue reading CompTIA Security+ An Approach Toward Physical Security

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For many IT professionals, Security+ is their first exposure to planning facility security.   Comprehensive, layered security is always the best solution. With unlimited resources you can place cameras everywhere, key or card access systems at every door, signage throughout a facility, frequent training and user education, security guards, secured guest and public meeting areas, or even remodel a building with the latest security features.  Given limited resources, the placement of security features can be a challenge.

For instructor-led learning classes, see our complete CompTIA training schedule.

The defense in depth model (shown below), identifies physical security as the secondary layer of security. Physical security includes all of the elements necessary to secure a business site.

01-Security+An-approach-toward-physical-security

The CompTIA SY0-401 objectives provide the following list of physical security controls.

  • Hardware locks
  • Mantraps
  • Video surveillance
  • Fencing
  • Proximity readers
  • Access list
  • Proper lighting
  • Signs
  • Guards
  • Barricades
  • Biometrics
  • Protected distribution
  • Alarms
  • Motion Detection

When making decisions regarding the selection and placement of physical controls, four control types should be considered in succession from the outermost to inner most locations of the business facility.

  1. Deterrent controls are designed to dissuade an attacker from attempting the attack and should be placed at the outermost perimeter(s) of the business facility.
  2. Detective controls are intended to identify an attack or incident in progress (including incidents eventually identified as false alarms). Detective systems typically record violations, sound alarms, and/or notify security personnel though do not commonly result in automated responses or actions. Controls within the detective category may include logs files that are manually audited after an incident rather than detecting the incident during the attack. Detective systems are typically placed on the exterior of the building, or target the entry and exit points throughout the building. Entry and exit points may include transitions between building zones.
  3. Preventive controls are intended to prevent an incident from doing harm to or creating a loss of business assets. Remember that employees are a critical asset rather than focusing solely on information technology systems and data storage. Preventive systems typically include a detective element that results in automated reaction of a preventive nature.  Doors with fail safe, fail open, or fail closed mechanisms would be included in the preventive controls list.
  4. Compensating and corrective controls limit the damage that occur as a result of an incident, though do not directly prevent the incident from happening.

The real world seldom mimics the ideal. Test candidates that rely on their experience or exposure to physical security controls may struggle to place physical controls in the ideal location when prompted on the exam.

Although real world scenarios do not always accommodate the perfect layout of a facility, Security+ exam scenarios are designed to afford ideal implementations. For instance, the data center or server room should always be placed in the centermost portion of the facility, with solid walls, floors, and ceilings other than HVAC access. Central placement of the data center protects the most important data components (the core of the defense in depth model).  In the real world, placement of the data center or server racks is often an afterthought that follows the placement of office spaces. Although glass windows and doors make for an excellent promotional display of a company’s technology, they are considered to weaken security rather than a control that allows attack detection.  When you are asked about facility layouts on the Security+ exam, always place the datacenter within the core of the building. Consider employee safety and security over employee comfort and convenience.

Deterrent controls include fencing, barriers, video surveillance, proper lighting, on premise security officers, and signage. Place as many of these as possible exterior to the building.

Detective controls include alarm inducing systems (smoke, fire, door sensors, motion detection, glass breakage, pressure plates and door magnets), access lists and sign-in sheets, and potentially a guard monitored sign-in desk. Video surveillance systems may be used for detection, though are slightly weighted toward deterrent use on the exam.  Door access controls that include identification or authentication systems, including keyed access and proximity card readers are considered detection systems. The use of door access controls commonly separate public areas from employee accessible areas of the facility.

Prevention controls include hardware locks, mantraps, and biometric systems. These solutions effectively dramatically reduce the opportunity for attackers to acquire business assets. Specialized server racks are also considered a prevention control. Examples of the latter include seismically braced racks, enclosed power and data distribution runs, and locking cabinets.  Vaults and safes are also considered prevention controls.

Remembering that incidents include natural and accidental system or business disruption, compensating and corrective controls are more commonly associated with response to related outages. Examples include UPS, component redundancy, and generators.

In addition to controls listed within the SY0-401 objectives, you also need to consider placement and configuration of wireless access points to prevent war-driving, access to Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) pins, and unauthorized connection by authorized visitors.

There are several specialized physical controls whose placement is predicated upon their purpose rather than classification:

  • Protected distribution. The use of casing, acoustic, electrical, or electromagnetic controls used with wire or fiber-optic lines and connection points that prevent disruption or unencrypted transmission. Physical placement is dependent upon location at which communication lines enter/exit the building.
  • A plenum is a space designed to facilitate pathways for HVAC and other building systems that also prevent the spread of fire.
  • Server operations monitoring. Monitoring equipment would be placed within the operations center, with the alarm components either centralized or distributed depending on the nature of the condition being monitored.
  • Heating and ventilation control system placement are often predicated upon the geographic region in which operations are conducted (which affect ambient temperature, humidity, and airflow requirements), the square footage of the facility, the specific needs of the operation center, and related building codes.

When you encounter a question about the placement of physical security controls, start either from the perimeter and work your way inside, or the core of the building and work your way to the outside. Place your specialized controls based upon building layout.

This approach will serve you well on the exam and in the real world.

I look forward to seeing you in the classroom, or online!

Steven Fullmer
Interface Technical Training Staff Instructor

Steve teaches PMP: Project Management Fundamentals and Professional Certification, Windows 10, and CompTIA classes in Phoenix, Arizona.

 

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How to Change Routing Tables with a Windows Command Prompt – From the CompTIA Network + Course https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/how-to-change-routing-tables-with-a-windows-command-prompt-from-the-comptia-network-course/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/how-to-change-routing-tables-with-a-windows-command-prompt-from-the-comptia-network-course/#respond Fri, 26 Aug 2016 18:20:17 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=23249 In this CompTIA Network + training video, instructor Mark Jacob demonstrates how to use a standard Windows Command Prompt to manipulate routing tables. Transcription: I want to show you something from what you will learn in the labs of this course such as manipulating routing tables. If you’re new to the environment you may be … Continue reading How to Change Routing Tables with a Windows Command Prompt – From the CompTIA Network + Course

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In this CompTIA Network + training video, instructor Mark Jacob demonstrates how to use a standard Windows Command Prompt to manipulate routing tables.


Transcription:

I want to show you something from what you will learn in the labs of this course such as manipulating routing tables. If you’re new to the environment you may be unaware that this can be done inside a Windows Command Prompt.

This is not directly taken from the CompTIA Network + class labs it’s a similar concept of what you will learn in the class.

Let’s get started:

To look at the routing table on a typical windows machine we’ll use “route-print

001-route-print-change-routing-Tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

If you were to hit enter now while running either IPv4 or IPv6, it would generate a bunch of stuff and you would need to scroll back up to see what you wanted to look at.

Since we’re focusing on IPv4, I’ll add “ -4 “  to the command to limit it to show only IPv4 information.

002-route-print-ipv4-change-routing-Tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

You’ll notice here that I have a “quad zero” Route 0.0.0.0

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This route points to the default gateway 10.1.0.1

If I had this box configured a s a DHCP Client and it received an IP Address from the DHCP Server, it will learn what it’s default gateway is and it’s going to configure this “quad-zero” route 0.0.0.0

What we want to do now is manipulate it. We’ll first find a target.

We’ll perform an ns lookup in order to do a name search.

004-ns-lookup-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

We’ll look for InterfaceTT.com

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It returns and address of 166.62.36.100

We’ll use the mark feature to copy the address to Notepad so that we have it saved for future use.

006-mark-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

007-mark-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

008-mark-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

Now what we’ll try create a rout in the routing table by using “route add” You’ll notice that the address starts with a 166

009-mark-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

We’ll type 166.0.0.0 and add a mask of 255.0.0.0

010-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

The next field is a default gateway and you’ll notice that from above, the default gateway is 10.1.0.1

011-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

Next we’ll hit enter.

We’ll once again type “route print – 4

012-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

And take a look at the results of what’s been added.

013-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

You’ll noticed that a rout has been added to 166.0.0.0 at it’s in the table. In fact, Windows looks at its routing table from the bottom to the top. Therefore, it placed it in this position which is not very specific since it only matches to the first 8 bits.

Now we will modify it again by using “route add” and the first two octets 166.62.0.0 and then add a mask of 255.255.0.0 and we’ll continue to send it to the default gateway of  10.1.0.1

Now we’ll hit enter and we receive an “OK!” notification.

014-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

Next we’ll type “route print -4

015-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

And hit enter.

016-change-routing-tables-with-a-command-prompt-comptia-net

Notice that it now placed it lower on the list? This is because Windows examines the routing tables form toe bottom up while looking for a specific match.  Now the route we just create matches more specific to 16 bits instead of 8 therefore it’s now lower on the table.

This is an example of what you will learn in the CompTIA Network + Certification class at Interface Technical Training.

For instructor-led CompTIA Certification classes, see our course schedule.

Until next time.

Mark Jacob
Cisco and CompTIA Network + Instructor – Interface Technical Training
Phoenix, AZ

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CompTIA Series: A+ 900 Acronyms https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-series-a-900-acronyms/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-series-a-900-acronyms/#respond Mon, 22 Aug 2016 22:45:45 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=23221 The CompTIA certification series continues to evolve.  The entry level Strata exam has been displaced by CompTIA IT Fundamentals as entry level certification requirements increase in breadth and complexity. The CompTIA A+ 900 series objectives introduced in December 2015 include more than 350 industry acronyms with which the exam candidate must become familiar.  The exam utilizes … Continue reading CompTIA Series: A+ 900 Acronyms

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The CompTIA certification series continues to evolve.  The entry level Strata exam has been displaced by CompTIA IT Fundamentals as entry level certification requirements increase in breadth and complexity.

The CompTIA A+ 900 series objectives introduced in December 2015 include more than 350 industry acronyms with which the exam candidate must become familiar.  The exam utilizes the industry vocabulary both as potential question content and to provide a vocabulary for question context.   As you prepare for the exam, you need to become fluent in the use of these acronyms.

For instructor-led CompTIA Certification classes see our course schedule.

I have compiled a complete list of the acronyms from the CompTIA A+ 901 and 902 Objectives below, adding some addition terms and content for thoroughness (and just a bit of fun.)

If you want to modify the file for your use, I have created a comma separated format you can download.

The quickest method to learning such a long list is the use of a flash card deck.   One of my favorite flash card tools is available as open source code through the Mnemosyne Project.   The application is available for Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, and Android, as well as webserver based delivery.  You can port any flash card database that you create from platform to platform.  (I have placed a database within Dropbox or a cloud location so that the tracking system keeps score regardless of the platform I am using.)

A Mnemosyne database file with all of the following terms is also available for download.

I look forward to seeing you in the classroom or online!

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How to Get Your Start into IT – Video by Spike Xavier https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/how-to-get-your-start-into-it-video-by-spike-xavier/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/how-to-get-your-start-into-it-video-by-spike-xavier/#respond Tue, 16 Aug 2016 22:48:27 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=23215 In this video, Instructor Spike Xavier presents his appreciation of the numerous reasons people should get into the IT Profession. Spike Xavier teaches SharePoint , Office365 and Web Development classes at Interface Technical Training

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In this video, Instructor Spike Xavier presents his appreciation of the numerous reasons people should get into the IT Profession.

Spike Xavier teaches SharePoint , Office365 and Web Development classes at Interface Technical Training

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CompTIA A+ 902: Troubleshooting Mobile Device Operating Systems https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-a-902-troubleshooting-mobile-device-operating-systems/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/comptia-a-902-troubleshooting-mobile-device-operating-systems/#respond Mon, 20 Jun 2016 17:40:47 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=22997 Now that we are delivering to the latest CompTIA A+ 220-902 exam objectives the course has dramatically expanded Operating System coverage. Exam objectives now include Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8/8.1 as well as Linux, Mac OS X, and both the IOS and Android mobile operating platforms. For CompTIA A+ Certification, see our course outline. Although … Continue reading CompTIA A+ 902: Troubleshooting Mobile Device Operating Systems

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Now that we are delivering to the latest CompTIA A+ 220-902 exam objectives the course has dramatically expanded Operating System coverage. Exam objectives now include Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8/8.1 as well as Linux, Mac OS X, and both the IOS and Android mobile operating platforms.

For CompTIA A+ Certification, see our course outline.

Although most exam candidates are likely familiar with the Microsoft Windows Mobile, IOS, or Android mobile operating systems on their own smart phones, they typically maintain limited knowledge for alternate mobile platforms.

One of the more powerful optional activities within our course encourages students to spend five or ten minutes researching a single common mobile OS issue and researching a solution. The Logical Operations courseware provides some starting points (provided within the content below) and I have added several more following my own research.

Take a few minutes yourself. Follow a few of the links and check out some of the more common problems and their solutions. My phone is now configured more efficiently due to the effort.

And I am ready to answer many of the questions that friends ask about their phones. (You know, the ones that all your non-technical friends assume you can answer at the drop of a pin.)

Android

53 common Android Problems Solved provides a fast and broad introduction to the very questions that a beginning Android user might ask about their new phone.

From the folks at books For Dummies we have Common Android Problem Troubleshooting. This simple seven item list is more of an entry level tutorial, though as one might expect the landing page offers more than nine additional links and an offer for the purchase of Android Phones for Dummies, 2nd Edition.

You can also try InLoveWithAndroid.com, a site chock full of useful Android information, configuration, custom development and free application options.  Start at the Most Common Android Problems and Solutions landing page.

C|Net provides Seven common Android problems and how to fix them (pictures) for those who want visual aids.

Lifehacker.com even provides a handy flow chart for Android Troubleshooting.

Guiding Tech provides specific information regarding Android Wi-Fi compatibility and setup.

iPhone

Of course the books For Dummies folks offer comparable sites and books for Troubleshooting iPhones.

Digital Trends regularly blogs about mobile device problems and solutions.  The course exercise offers iPhone 5 Problems: What users complain about the most (updated) offers thirteen of the more common iPhone 5 problems and simple solutions for each.

30 Major Problems with the iPhone 6, and what to do about them. If you are looking for common iPhone 6 or 6+ solutions, then start with this article. Each of the issues shared offers multiple alternate solutions. Just the type of information that I like, since it leads to more comprehensive solutions rather than mere band aids.

The Wire online magazine offers The Most Common iPhone 5 Glitches and Their Fixes. Other than for its take on three common complaints about the iPhone 5 immediately following it’s 2012 release, archive this one solely for its historical value. I would place the ETrade Supply site in the same category, although ETrade Supply also offers insight into hardware repair and replacement parts for common iPhone hardware issues as well.

Perhaps my favorite iPhone troubleshooting site (amongst the few dozen popular sites I explored for each device) was provided by EveryiPhone.com. They offer a one page FAQ listing common questions and issues, with redirection to the solution for each. Easy to use, and comprehensive.

You can always go directly to a carrier or service provider, the vendors that already provide end-user help desk and technical support, to inquire or perhaps even redirect your users.

Carrier and Provider Sites

You can also check out many of the cell service provider sites for common troubleshooting steps.  Some examples:

So go ahead, try your own search…  “Android Troubleshooting” yielded more than 5 million hits, while “iPhone Troubleshooting” came in a close second with 4.5 million results.

A+ 220-902 with a decidedly expanded software focus is going to be an interesting challenge to teach, and for the student to learn.

I look forward to seeing you in the classroom, or online!

Steven Fullmer
Interface Technical Training Staff Instructor

Steve teaches PMP: Project Management Fundamentals and Professional Certification, Windows 7, Windows 8.1 and CompTIA classes in Phoenix, Arizona.

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Performance testing and monitoring using free tool NTttcp from Microsoft https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/performance-testing-and-monitoring-using-free-tool-ntttcp-from-microsoft/ https://www.interfacett.com/blogs/performance-testing-and-monitoring-using-free-tool-ntttcp-from-microsoft/#respond Tue, 19 Apr 2016 16:24:28 +0000 http://www.interfacett.com/blogs/?p=?p=22821 In my classes, whether it is a Cisco class or a CompTIA Network + class, one of the topics always considered is monitoring the network. It turns out that there is a cool tool that is available from Microsoft that allows a network admin to stress test a network connection and monitor the results. Simply … Continue reading Performance testing and monitoring using free tool NTttcp from Microsoft

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In my classes, whether it is a Cisco class or a CompTIA Network + class, one of the topics always considered is monitoring the network. It turns out that there is a cool tool that is available from Microsoft that allows a network admin to stress test a network connection and monitor the results. Simply access your preferred search engine and look for NTttcp download. There is a help document that accompanies the download which explains in detail your options. There is even a lab in the Network+ class that performs this test, albeit in a virtual environment. In this blog I will perform similar steps to those in the lab, but on two real machines. I will not be exploring all the choices which can be executed with the tool, but enough to introduce the tool if you are unfamiliar with it.

I have two machines that are directly connected with a crossover cable and have been configured with IP addresses in the same network: PC1 is 10.100.0.1/24 and PC2 is 10.100.0.254/24. A view of the topology is shown in figure1:

 001-Network-Topology-NTttcp-from-Microsoft

Figure 1

What I like to do when I execute these steps is to title my command prompt windows to keep track of where I am. I have connected my two machines, I have launched two command prompt windows (as Administrator, of course) and I have my text files ready to paste into those windows. Here are the contents of the text files on PC1 and PC2 respectively:

PC1

paste this into the window for sending

title PC1 sender
cd {path} <- insert the path to your executable here
ntttcp -s -m 1,0,10.100.0.254 -p 10000 -d -a 4

 

paste this into the window for receiving

title PC1 receiver
cd {path} <- insert the path to your executable here
ntttcp -r -m 1,0,10.100.0.1 -p 20000 -d -a 4
PC2
title PC2 sender
cd {path} <- insert the path to your executable here
ntttcp -s -m 1,0,10.100.0.1 -p 20000 -d -a 4

title PC2 receiver
cd {path} <- insert the path to your executable here
ntttcp -r -m 1,0,10.100.0.254 -p 10000 -d -a 4

 

See Microsoft’s full documentation for a complete discussion of command line options. In the steps above, the –m switch allows the tester to specify single- or multi- thread operations and which processor to use. The –p switch specifies the beginning port number to uses to start transferring data. The –a switch specifies asynchronous data transfer with 4 outstanding I/O buffers. Execute the commands so that everything above is pasted into the window, but don’t hit Enter on anything yet. Once all windows are preloaded, make the receiver window on each machine the active window. Hit Enter in each window, then make the sender window the active window on each PC. Hit Enter simultaneously (or as close as possible) in each sender window.  Let’s take a look at the command prompt windows on PC1 after executing the commands above:

002-Command-Prompt-NTttcp-from-Microsoft

Figure 2

Figure 2 shows the receiver window on PC1. Now let’s see the sender window on PC1:

003-Command-Prompt-Network-Activity-NTttcp-from-Microsoft

Figure 2

Let’s do the same for PC2. Here is the receiver window:

004-Command-Prompt-receiver-Network-Activity-NTttcp-from-Microsoft

Figure 3

Here is the sender window:

005-Command-Prompt-sender-Network-Activity-NTttcp-from-Microsoft

Figure 4

Note the very close correlation between the sending window of one machine and the receiving window of the other machine. For instance, in the sending window of PC1, it shows Bytes: 695.750000 and the receiving window of PC2 shows 695.750122. The sending window shows Packets Received : 455535 while the receiving window shows 455356 Packets Sent. This gives the admin very good numbers on throughput success.

Another fun activity is to run Task Manager or Performance Monitor (or even Wireshark) during the test and viewing the results. Here is a screencap of PC1 which was running Performance Monitor:

006-Performance-Monitor-sender-Network-Activity-NTttcp-from-Microsoft

Figure 5

Notice that the test pegged the meter briefly. PC2 was running Task Manager:

007-Task-Manager-Network-Activity-NTttcp-from-Microsoft

Figure 6

Of course you can manipulate the counters in Performance Monitor to suit your fancy. As mentioned, there are numerous other options available, multi-threading and multi-proc, for example. I just wanted to introduce this formerly internal-only tool that Microsoft has made available in case you hadn’t seen it before. Have fun exploring the options, and if you find anything cool you wish to share, please leave your comments here.

Until next time.

Mark Jacob
Cisco and CompTIA Network + Instructor – Interface Technical Training
Phoenix, AZ

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